Algosim documentation: +

+ (plus)

The plus sign is used for several different operations on various kinds of operands and has two distinct syntactic forms:


Description and examples

Binary operator: addition

Addition of numbers

If a and b are numbers (integers, rational numbers, real number, or complex numbers), a + b is the mathematical sum of a and b. The type of the sum is the most specific type possible.

Some examples:

π + e
3/7 + 2/5
29/35	(=0.828571428571)

Vector addition

If u and v are vectors, u + v is the vector sum of u and v. u + v is a complex vector if at least one of u and v is complex; otherwise, u + v is a real vector.

u and v must be of the same dimension.

u ≔ ❨2, 1, 3❩; v ≔ ❨0, 2, 1❩; u + v

Matrix addition

If A and B are matrices, A + B is the matrix sum of A and B. A + B is a complex matrix if at least one of A and B is complex; otherwise, A + B is a real matrix.

A and B must be of the same size.

A ≔ ❨❨1, 3❩, ❨−i, 1❩❩; B ≔ ❨❨2, 1❩, ❨0, −1❩❩; A + B
⎛ 3   4⎞
⎝−i   0⎠

Adding a scalar to a vector

If v is a vector and x a number, then v + x is the vector obtained from v by adding x to each component. If either v or x is complex, v + x is a complex vector. Otherwise, v + x is a real vector.

❨1, 5, 2❩ + i
 ⎛1 + i⎞
e⎜5 + i⎟
 ⎝2 + i⎠

Adding a scalar to a matrix

If A is a matrix and x a number, then A + x is the matrix obtained from A by adding x to each entry. If either A or x is complex, A + x is a complex matrix. Otherwise, A + x is a real matrix.

ZeroMatrix(4) + 1
⎛1  1  1  1⎞
⎜1  1  1  1⎟
⎜1  1  1  1⎟
⎝1  1  1  1⎠

Concatenating two strings

If a and b are strings, a + b is the concatenation of a + b.

MessageBox("Welcome, " + InputBox("Please enter your name:") + "!")

Adding an object to a string

If s is a string and X any object, then s + X obtains a textual representation of X, concatenates s and this textual representation, and returns the result.

"car" + 2

Superposing two sounds by samplewise addition

If s and t are two sounds, s + t is the superposed sound obtained by samplewise addition.

SineTone(100, 0.1, 1) + SineTone(400, 0.1, 1)
A 1-second 32-bit 48000 Hz 1-channel sound.

Unary operator

Typically, the unary plus operator + has no effect. It is typically used to highlight to the reader of the expression that a number is non-negative, that a quantity is included in an expression with its original sign, or to achieve visual symmetry when used together with unary minus signs.

The unary operator + maps to the identity function defined as x ↦ x, thus returning its argument unchanged. However, the inclusion of a unary plus might affect the way in which an expression is evaluated under special circumstances.

In Algosim, the symbols for built-in kernel functions can be used as if they were objects representing the kernel functions (in the same way user-defined functions really are objects that can be stored in variables).

For example,

kernel function


s ≔ sin

But in some cases this automatic interpretation of a name of a built-in kernel function as a kernel function object doesn’t work. Here is one example:

Unknown identifier "sin".
Call stack: type

This is because the type function is special: it tries to optimise the evaluation of the expression by not actually fetching its argument using the default, automated, mechanism, but by using it unevaluated as a reference into the internal variable database. But since sin isn’t a true variable, this fails.

However, by writing +sin, this optimisation fails, and standard evaluation gives us the desired result:

kernel function


See also